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Forest vegetation.

The territory of the Carpathian National Nature Park, belonging to the Ukrainian Carpathians, is represented by the following vegetation zonal belts: 1) fir-beech forests mixed with spruce with fir-beech subbelts mixed with hornbean forests and prypolonynni (situated near large subalpine meadows) maple-beech forests, 2) beech-fir forests mixed with spruce, 3) beech-fir-spruce forests, 4) fir-spruce forests, 5) spruce forests, 6) spruce forests mixed with European cedar pine, 7) subalpine mountain pine, 8) Alpine forests.

Forest vegetation is also presented by intrazonal belts: 1) grey alder forests, 2) pine forests mixed with spruce.

The lower limit of the vertical distribution of forest vegetation belongs to the zone of beech forests, which occupy about 10% of park’s territory. Beech mostly occupies mid-mountain part of the north-eastern slopes forming the upper limit of the forest in the form of small bands.

The northern part of the park, with the height of 450 m asl is located in the zone of beech forests dominated by beech and silver fir. The species composition of these forests, excluding the main species like beech, silver fir and spruce, is characterized by a very small admixture of oak species that grow here at the upper limit of its range and reach nearly 480 m asl. It only includes a very small area of narrow beech-fir forest mixed with oak on the eastern slope of the left bank of the Prut.

Beech forms one main, almost continuous belt of fir-beech forest belt mixed with spruce in the basin of the Prut river within 450-750 m asl and 2 small subbelts: 1) fir-beech forests mixed with hornbeam within 500-650 m asl where hornbeam grows at the upper limit of its range, and 2) maple-beech prypolonynni forests with the elements of crooked beech forests within 980-1050 m asl where beech forest has III-IV site quality.

Vertical distribution above the belt of fir-beech forests mixed with spruce is changed to almost continuous massive belt of beech-fir forests mixed with spruce. According to its bioecological properties silver fir is similar to beech and spruce to some extent, hence it does not form a belt in the Carpathians and is a component of mixed forests.

Given the area of distribution and ecological and biological characteristics of silver fir, in particular its windfirmness, massive solid beech-fir forest belt mixed with spruce exists in the northern and partly central part, where it covers large areas in the basin of the Prut river (minor areas) and Chornyi Cheremosh river within 600-950 m asl. It occupies about 20% of the park. The upper limit of high-yield fir forests of the park is located on the left bank of the Prut river between Zavoyela and Babyna Yama tracts (950 m asl).

Mid-mountain and alpine part of the park belongs to the zone of spruce forests, where it occupies about 55%. The vertical distribution is represented by beech-fir-spruce forests, where they occupy mid-mountain part of the park within 720-1050 (1170) m asl. The upper limit of these forests is not clearly defined. Fir-spruce forest belt occupies alpine part within (650) -850-900 m asl. These forests often occupy quite low parts of western slopes at an altitude of 650 m asl, in particular on the right bank of the Prutets Chemyhivskyi river.

Spruce forests occupy alpine part of the park within 900-1450 m asl and are characterized by the fact that the site quality of the forest stands varies dramatically from I (in mixed oak-pine forests - sudubrava) to Va (in the pine woods), and that spruce often forms high normality stands and the largest number of forest types.

Relict forest belt of spruce forests mixed with European cedar pine occupies alpine part of the park within 1100-1300 m asl and is characterized by the fact that it serves as habitat for the distribution of valuable relic species - European cedar pine.

Subalpine zone, formed by impenetrable thickets of pine and green alder, covers alpine part above spruce forests zone within 1450-1750 m asl.

Alpine zone is covered with grassy and sub-shrub alpine meadows of high peaks of mountains Hoverla, Breskul, Turkul, Shpytsi, Homul, Rebra, Smotrych, Pip Ivan within 1750 -2061 m asl.

Intrazonal vegetation includes grey alder forest belt, which covers floodplains of the Prut and Chornyi Cheremosh river banks and their numerous tributaries with small narrow area within 730-780 m asl and is characterized by the fact that it serves as habitat for the distribution of rare species - white snowdrops. These forests reach the headwaters of the Prut river (980 m asl). Gray alder grows at the upper limit of the range. Some areas of forests with well-preserved structure are located on the left bank of Chornyi Cheremosh river, along Pohorilets river and on the left bank of Shybenka river.

Relict pine forest belt mixed with spruce covers mid-mountain part of the park within 600-850 m asl and is characterized by the fact that it serves as habitat for relic pine. They are located as separate large areas of forest of post-glacial period and are rare forests.

Rare phytocoenotic fund (vegetation communities) of the Carpathian NNP

Rare phytocoenotic fund of Carpathian NNP, which belongs to the list of Green Data Book of Ukraine, consists of 50 associations. On the territory of Carpathian NNP there have been found: 16 coniferous communities, 1 deciduous community, 8 shrub communities, 17 meadow communities, 8 wetland communities. Most rare plant communities are protected by absolute and regulated regime of conservation reserve.

Part of rare phytocoenotic fund is represented by virgin phytocoenoses. At present, the total area of virgin forests (which also includes quasi-virgin forests whose natural environment has some visible human impact, provided that the age and coenotic structure of the plantation was not disturbed) totals 605.6 hectares or 1.2% of lands covered with forest, most of these plantations are located in the conservation area of the park. Most of them remained in alpine spruce forest (about 55%); polydominant spruce forest (20%); fir forest (15%), beech forest (5%) and mountain and rare pine forests (about 5%). Therefore, they are important sites for use as models for natural forestry and the formation of forests with similar properties.

The list provides information on rare phytocoenotic diversity of the park. The list summarizes the results of research related to the study of biodiversity in the park.