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Yaremche nature-oriented science and research department

(land area of 3 075 ha)

Yaremche nature-oriented science and research department is headquartered in the northern part of the park by the left side of the Prut river on the outskirts of Yaremche.

The highest peaks are the mountains of Yavirnyk (1100 m. a. s. l.) and Chornohorytsya (1050 m. a. s. l.)

This locality is characterised by the moderately-continental climate with considerable annual amount of precipitation (933 mm). Average annual temperature ranges from 5.1 to 7.2 centigrade. Vegetation duration period makes up about 180 days. Prevalent are the winds of south-westerly direction. Permanent snow cover is formed in December and usually fades between April and May.

Waterway network is represented with the bunch of Prut’s left tributaries, namely Zhonka, Chornogirchyk, Kamyanka, Yavirnyk, Bagrivets.

Forest is the dominant vegetation type of this area (2819.3 ha), the narrow margin of 53.0% belonging to foliage species of wood. The local forest cover attains the mark of 91,7%. In terms of forestry zoning the vegetation on the territory refers to the Carpathian mountain circuit, the northern part pertinent to the Outer Carpathians with beech and dark coniferous woods, and the southern to the high mountain area of firry spruce and genuinely spruce woods.

The territory is encompassed by the nature reserve fund, therein divided into four functional areas, among which the greatest amount of forests (91.6%) is embraced by the zone of controlled recreation, 8.0% comes to the conservation area and the remainder of 0.4% - to the static recreation zone.

The most part (81.4%) are the woods of natural origin.

The dominant forest-forming species are represented with European beech and silver fir (the former slightly prevailing with 50.0% of the natural abundance). Another considerable rate of occurrence belongs to spruce (31.0%). Minor areas go to other wood species, namely pine (2.0%), European hornbeam (1.5%), grey alder (1.5%), common larch (0.4%), and Douglas fir (0.005%).

Vertical zoning of woods is constituted by the following ranges:

  1. fir and beech with tinctures of spruce (500-800 m.a.s.l.); some of them are located separately on the left side of Prut embracing north-eastern and eastern slopes of several stows, namely Zatynka, Velykyi, Mlaky and Mezhyzvirna. Primary forest types are moist spruce and fir co-beech wood (average timber yield 730.0 m3/ha, mean increment 6.7 m3/ha) and moist spruce and fir beech wood (average timber yield 890.0 m3/ha, mean increment 8.2 m3/ha);
  2. fir and beech with tinctures of hornbeam (550-630 m.a.s.l.); a moderate narrow range stretches along the left bank of Zhonka, and another, more massive one, right along the right bank covering most area of the Bagrivets stow. Primary forest type is moist hornbeam and fir co-beech wood (average timber yield 540.0 m3/ha, mean increment 4.1 m3/ha);
  3. pine with tinctures of spruce (600-850 m.a.s.l.); separate little ranges reside on the south-eastern slopes of the left bank of Prut; another isolated one lies on the south-eastern bank to the south of the railway tunnel not far from the Dribka stow. Primary forest type is fresh spruce and pine wood;
  4. beech and fir with tinctures of spruce (600-750 m.a.s.l.); a solid massive range stretching from northern and north-eastern slopes of st. Kamianka and almost reaching to st. Zatynka. Some of them cover large parts of several stows including Velykyi, Mlaky, Pasiky and Mezhyzvirna. Primary forest type is moist spruce and beech co-fir wood (average timber yield 830.0 m3/ha, mean increment 6.7 m3/ha);
  5. beech, fir and spruce (750-800 m.a.s.l.); a solid range rests upon the northern and north-eastern falls of the Svynianka mountain. Primary forest type is moist beech and fir co-spruce wood (average timber yield 810.0 m3/ha, mean increment 7.3 m3/ha);
  6. pure spruce (900-1000 m.a.s.l.) - a single moderate range dwelling upon the flanks of the Katerynka mountain. Primary forest type is fresh pure spruce co-pine wood.

The up-to-date age composition of forests is the following: young stand - 16.02%, middle-aged - 74.8%, ripening stand - 0.59%, mature and overmature - 8.59%.

The area of this department involves extremely valuable mountain ecosystems of Gorgany with importance in various aspects, particularly landscape and ecological, zoogeographical and nature-preservational. This is the place of concentration of multiple endemic and rare plant species, such as stiff clubmoss, northern firmoss, European yew, great masterwort, great yellow gentian, Carpathian harebell, wolf’s bane, Carpathian centaury, Leucojum vernum L. (snowflake flower), common snowdrop, lesser butterfly-orchid. Some of the species are enrolled in the Red Book of Ukraine, among them lesser butterfly-orchid, wolf’s bane, small-dotted orchis.

Alongside with the floral endemics comes the diversity of relict original fauna, 30.0% thereof made up by small mammals. The registered vertebrals include certain species which can be found in the Red Book of Ukraine, namely Carpathian newt, Alpine newt, fire salamander, smooth snake, Western Capercaillie, horned owl, Eurasian pigmy owl, Alpine shrew, Mediterranean (Miller’s) water shrew, stoat, European mink, badger, otter, lynx.

Recreational objects of interest are waterfalls of Probiy (on Prut), Divochi Slyozy (‘Maiden Tears’) on Zhonka, together with ecological educational tours ‘Nature is Our Friend’, the one to m. Chornohorytsia, and the one within ‘Zhonka’ recreational area. Cage farm of 5.3 ha area is another attractive object. It’s the place of dwelling for five red deers and three wild boars.

Recreational management of natural resources has at its disposal zones of static and controllable recreation. Visitors may enjoy sightseeing in the cage farm, recreational areas ‘Zhonka’, ‘Vodospad’ (‘The Waterfall’), via the system of ecological educational tours such as ‘Nature is Our Friend’, ‘To m. Chornohorytsia’.

Primary objectives of the department are as follows:

  1. preservation of natural complexes;
  2. foundation of new places for recreation;
  3. educational work and promotion of environment-related knowledge;
  4. scientific research and study of natural complexes and their changeability in context of recreational use of the territory.

Yamna nature-oriented science and research department

(land area of 2 772 ha)

Yamna nature-oriented science and research department is headquartered in the northern part of the park by both sides of the Prut river on the outskirts of Yaremche and Mykulychyn.

The highest peaks of the department are the mountains of Raketa-Velyka (1110 m.a.s.l.), Zakaminnia (1077 m.a.s.l.), Gorgan (1049 m.a.s.l.) and Makovytsia (984 m.a.s.l.)

This locality is characterised by the moderately-continental climate with considerable annual amount of precipitation (700-800 mm). Average annual temperature is 6.5 centigrade. Vegetation duration period makes up about 202 days. Prevalent are the winds of south-westerly direction.

Waterway network is represented with the bunch of Prut’s right tributaries, namely Prutets Chemehivsky, Foreshchynka, Raketny, Skisny, Nerysnyi, Boyarsky, Klitchyn, Pichny, and the single left one, Prypir.

Forest is the dominant vegetation type of this area (2366.6 ha), the prevalence (76.0%) belonging to evergreen coniferous woods. The local forest cover attains the mark of 85,4%. In terms of forestry zoning the vegetation on the territory refers to the Carpathian mountain circuit, the northern part pertinent to the Outer Carpathians with beech and dark coniferous woods, and the southern to the high mountain area of fir and spruce and genuinely spruce woods.

The territory is encompassed by the nature reserve fund, therein divided into four functional areas, among which the greatest amount of forests (80.0%) is embraced by the zone of controlled recreation, 19.7% comes to the conservation area and the remainder of 0.3% - to the static recreation zone.

The most part (79.0%) are the woods of natural origin.

The dominant forest-forming species are represented with pine, silver fir and European beech. The dominant position of the natural abundance is ranked by spruce (51.0%). Somewhat smaller areas are covered with European beech (18.0%), pine (17.0%), silver fir (8.0%). Minor areas go to other wood species, namely, European hornbeam (1.5%), grey alder (1.5%), common larch (0.4%), and Douglas fir (0.005%).

Vertical zoning of woods is constituted by the following ranges:

  1. fir and beech with tinctures of spruce (500-800 m.a.s.l.); a small range is situated in the stow of Piddil on the right side of Prut embracing northern, western south-western flanks of m. Makovytsya. Primary forest type is moist spruce and fir co-beech wood (average timber yield 570.0 m3/ha, mean increment 4.8 m3/ha);
  2. fir and beech with tinctures of hornbeam (550-630 m.a.s.l.); moderate narrow ranges are stretched along the right bank of Prut (western flanks of m. Makovytsya), the rest growing right along the left bank from eastern slopes of Yarshytsya to Ovishchyk stow (eastern flanks of m. Svynianka). Primary forest type is moist hornbeam and fir co-beech wood (average timber yield 540.0 m3/ha, mean increment 4.1 m3/ha);
  3. pine with tinctures of spruce (600-850 m.a.s.l.); separate solid wide ranges reside on the right bank of Prut and spread from southern flanks of m. Makovytsya close by the Dribka stow, embracing the very stow, massive near the central part of Yamna, Pechenivska, Oseredok, Sisnia and separate parts of Pohara. Primary forest type is fresh spruce and pine wood (average timber yield 350.0 m3/ha, mean increment 2.5 m3/ha);
  4. beech and fir with tinctures of spruce (600-750 m.a.s.l.); a solid massive range stretching along the left bank of Prut from northern and north-eastern slopes near Yamna, embracing stowes of Verkhkamin, Dilok, Yartsi up to Ovishchyk. Primary forest type is moist spruce and beech co-fir wood (average timber yield 830.0 m3/ha, mean increment 6.7 m3/ha);
  5. fir and spruce (550-1000 m.a.s.l.); separate solid ranges cover minor part of stows Pechenivska and Tisnyi, big parts of Nerysny, Kychera, and Pohary. Primary forest type is moist fir co-spruce wood (average timber yield 715.0 m3/ha, mean increment 6.0 m3/ha);
  6. beech, fir and spruce (750-800 m.a.s.l.); a solid range rests upon the right bank of Prutets Chemyhivsky in st. Pohary and st. Zakaminnia, another one residing on south-eastern falls of the Svynianka mountain. Primary forest type is moist beech and fir co-spruce wood (average timber yield 810.0 m3/ha, mean increment 7.3 m3/ha);
  7. pure spruce (900-1000 m.a.s.l.) - a single wide range dwelling upon western and north-western flanks of Velyka Raketa and Zakaminnia mountains. Primary forest type is fresh pure spruce co-pine wood.

The up-to-date age composition of forests is the following: young stand - 7.7%, middle-aged - 84.32%, ripening stand - 2.53%, mature and overmature - 5.45%.

The area of this department involves extremely valuable mountain ecosystems of Gorgany with importance in various aspects, particularly landscape and ecological, zoogeographical and nature-preservational. This is the place of concentration of multiple endemic and rare plant species, such as wolf’s bane, common snowdrop, great masterwort, Carpathian centaury, red helleborine, meadow saffron, moorland spotted orchid, western marsh orchid, royal helleborine, violet helleborine, fragrant orchid, Leucojum vernum L., Turk’s cap lily, perennial honesty, stiff clublike, burnt-tip orchid, lesser butterfly-orchid, Traunsteinera globosa, common twayblade.

The fauna is most frequently represented by brown bear, lynx, wildcat, red deer, roe deer.

Generally, the animal domain of Yamna nature-oriented science and research department embraces 14 species enlisted in the Red Book of Ukraine, factually Carpathian newt, Alpine newt, fire salamander, black stork, lesser spotted eagle, ural owl, Mediterranean (Miller’s) water shrew, montane water vole, stoat, badger, European otter, wildcat, common lynx, brown bear.

Secured and safeguarded in the nature-oriented science and research department are:

  1. high-yielding virgin forest of beech (sq. 1-2);
  2. picturesque rock scenery ‘Stezka Dovbusha’ (‘Dovbush’s Path’) (sq. 3);
  3. Weymouth pine plantation (sq. 4);
  4. timber stands of relict pinewood (sq. 4 and 14);
  5. Prutets Chemyhivsky canyon (sq. 20, 22, 23, 25).

That’s the territory of Yamna department where the ecological-educational ‘Dovbush’s Path’ resides, four-kilometer long. Art and memorial complex ‘Dovbush’s Path’ is the artistic perpetuation of places where legend dwell related to the name of the leader of Carpathian opryshky (partisans), Oleksa Dovbush. The route begins upon the wildlife sanctuary of Dribka stow (Yamna nature-oriented science and research department) close by the Dovbush’s rock, then wanders between the cliffs and leads to the Gorgan Zaprutsky chain. The path is running through the place of activity of the famous Dovbush and his brethren.

Primary objectives of the department are as follows:

  1. preservation of natural complexes;
  2. foundation of new places for recreation;
  3. educational work and promotion of environment-related knowledge;
  4. scientific research and study of natural complexes and their changeability in context of recreational use of the territory.

Pidlisna nature-oriented science and research department

(land area of 3 078 ha)

Pidlisna nature-oriented science and research department is headquartered in the north-eastern part of the park by both sides of the Prut river and Prutets Chemyhivsky, its right tributary, on the outskirts of Mykulychyn.

The highest peaks of the department are the mountains of Kuniklyva (1261 m.a.s.l.), Yahidnyi (1216 m.a.s.l.), Kruhloyavirnyk (1211 m.a.s.l.) and Svynianka (1146 m.a.s.l.)

This locality is characterised by the moderately-continental climate with considerable annual amount of precipitation (881 mm). Average annual temperature is 6.3 centigrade. Vegetation duration period makes up about 202 days. Prevalent are the winds of south-westerly direction. Permanent snow cover is formed in December and usually fades between April and May.

Waterway network is represented with the Prut’s right tributary Prutets Chemehivsky and the left one, Yavirnytskyi.

Forest is the dominant vegetation type of this area (2698.5 ha), the prevalence (68.0%) belonging to evergreen coniferous woods. The local forest cover attains the mark of 87.7%. In terms of forestry zoning the vegetation on the territory refers to the Carpathian mountain circuit, the northern part pertinent to the Outer Carpathians with beech and dark coniferous woods, and the southern to the high mountain area of fir and spruce and genuinely spruce woods.

The territory is encompassed by the nature reserve fund, therein divided into four functional areas, among which the greatest amount of forests (85.41%) is embraced by the zone of controlled recreation, 14.56% comes to the conservation area and the remainder of 0.02% - to the static recreation zone.

The most part (65.1%) are the woods of natural origin.

The dominant forest-forming species are represented with silver fir, slightly prevailing with 39.0% of the natural abundance. Somewhat smaller areas are covered with European beech (31.0%) and spruce (27.5%). Minor areas go to other wood species, namely, cultivated in forest stands European larch cultivated in forest stands (1.5%), grey alder (0.9%), and Douglas fir (0.005%).

Vertical zoning of woods is constituted by the following ranges:

  1. beech and fir with tinctures of spruce (660-900 m.a.s.l.); a solid massive range spans over the south-western flanks of Lisnova chain on the right side of Prut (stows Pidlisniv, Plai, Rastovyi, Pozhezha, Palenyna, stavy, Polumystyi, fair parts of Kopchyn) and stretches far to north-eastern flanks of the Hychka mountain, therefore embracing almost entire upstream of Prutets Chemyhivskyi’s left tributaries. Primary forest type is moist spruce and beech co-fir wood (average timber yield 830.0 m3/ha, mean increment 7.8 m3/ha);
  2. beech, fir and spruce (720-1050 m.a.s.l.); narrow isolated and solid ranges are stretched along southern slopes of m. Svynianka therebeside of st. Shepetinka, Borsuchyna, and st. Obich on the left bank of Prut. Primary forest type is moist beech and fir co-spruce wood (average timber yield 810.0 m3/ha, mean increment 7.3 m3/ha);
  3. sycamore and beech (1100 m.a.s.l.); a single narrow moderate range occupies the north-eastern falls of Lisnova chain. Primary forest type is moist sycamore co-beech wood;
  4. pure spruce (850-1261 m.a.s.l.) - a single range dwelling upon eastern and north-eastern flanks of Hychka upstream of Prutets Chemyhivskyi’s left tributaries. Primary forest type is fresh pure spruce co-pine wood and moist pure co-spruce wood.

The up-to-date age composition of forests is the following: young stand - 5.77%, middle-aged - 85.32%, ripening stand - 0.45%, mature and overmature - 8.43%.

The area of this department involves extremely valuable mountain ecosystems of Gorgany with importance in various aspects, particularly landscape and ecological, zoogeographical and nature-preservational.

This is the place of concentration of multiple endemic and rare plant species, such as wolf’s bane, common snowdrop, great masterwort, perennial honesty, Carpathian centaury, red helleborine, meadow saffron, crocus heufellianus, moorland spotted orchid, western marsh orchid, violet helleborine, fragrant orchid, Leucojum vernum L., Turk’s cap lily, common twayblade, stiff clublike, burnt-tip orchid, lesser butterfly-orchid, Traunsteinera globosa, ramsons, common snowdrop.

The relict fauna is similarly abundant in species enrolled in the Red Book of Ukraine, factually Carpathian newt, Alpine newt, fire salamander, black stork, lesser spotted eagle, ural owl, Mediterranean (Miller’s) water shrew, lesser horseshoe bat, montane water vole, stoat, European otter, wildcat, common lynx, European mink.

Visitors may find peculiarly interesting the larch clonal seed orchard, archival plantation of spruce, silver fir and Douglas fir clones, maple mother-tree archive and the reserved stow of Kopchyn.

Special attention within Pidlisna department is paid to the recreational use of land resources. Three recreational zones are already open to visitors, namely Vorotyshchi, Barvyshchi and Zakutok.

Primary objectives of the department are as follows:

  1. preservation of natural complexes;
  2. foundation of new places for recreation;
  3. educational work and promotion of environment-related knowledge;
  4. scientific research and study of natural complexes and their changeability in context of recreational use of the territory.

Zhenets nature-oriented science and research department

(land area of 4 017 ha)

Zhenets nature-oriented science and research department is headquartered in the north-western part of the park on the left bank of the Prut river on the outskirts of Tatariv and Polianytsia villages.

The highest peaks of the department are the mountains of Syniak (1665 m.a.s.l.), Homiak (1556 m.a.s.l.), Kruhloyavirnyk (1221 m.a.s.l.), Katerynka (1498 m.a.s.l.), Malyi Gorgan (1603 m.a.s.l.) and Hreblia (1256 m.a.s.l.)

This locality is characterised by the moderately-continental climate with considerable annual amount of precipitation (1000 mm). Average annual temperature ranges from 4.1 to 6.0 centigrade. Vegetation duration period makes up about 175 days. Prevalent are the winds of south-westerly direction. Permanent snow cover is formed in December and usually fades between April and May.

Waterway network is represented with the bunch of Prut’s left tributaries, namely Zhenets, Prutets Yablunytskyi, Bohdan, Studenyi.

Forest is the dominant vegetation type of this area (3523.7 ha), the almost absolute prevalence (84.0%) belonging to evergreen coniferous woods and scrubs. The local forest cover attains the mark of 87,7%. In terms of forestry zoning the vegetation on the territory refers to the Carpathian mountain circuit, the northern part pertinent to the Outer Carpathians with beech and dark coniferous woods, and the southern to the high mountain area of fir and spruce and genuinely spruce woods.

The territory is encompassed by the nature reserve fund, therein divided into four functional areas, among which the greatest amount of forests (73.45%) is embraced by the zone of controlled recreation, 26.53% comes to the conservation area and the remainder of 0.02% - to the static recreation zone.

The most part (60.84%) are the woods of natural origin.

The dominant forest-forming species are represented with spruce having the dominant position of the natural abundance (53.5%). Somewhat smaller areas are covered with silver fir (17.0%) and European beech (15.0%). Minor areas go to other wood species, namely, mountain pine (9.0%), Swiss stone pine (3.0%), Scotch pine (1.5%), grey alder (1.5%), and birch (0.5%).

Vertical zoning of woods is constituted by the following ranges:

  1. beech and fir with tinctures of spruce (700-900 m.a.s.l.); a solid range is situated along the left side of Zhenets. Primary forest type is moist beech and fir co-spruce wood (average timber yield 570.0 m3/ha, mean increment 4.8 m3/ha);
  2. beech, fir and spruce (800-1050 m.a.s.l.); a wide range resides on the south-western flanks of st. Bohdan and southern falls of m. Yavirnyk (the left bank of Zhenets) between 800 and 1150 m.a.s.l. Primary forest type is moist beech and fir co-spruce wood (average timber yield 730.0 m3/ha, mean increment 6.8 m3/ha);
  3. pure grey alder (730-750 m.a.s.l.); a very narrow range is stretching along Zhenets. Primary forest type is green pure co-oak wood;
  4. fir and spruce (900-1050 m.a.s.l.); narrow uninterrupted ranges spread on south-western flanks of st. Bohdan and southern falls of m. Yavirnyk. Primary forest type is moist fir co-spruce wood;
  5. pine with tinctures of spruce (900-1050 m.a.s.l.); a wide solid range is located on south-western and southern flanks of m. Yavirnyk (along the left side of Zhenets). Primary forest type is pure spruce co-pine wood;
  6. pure spruce (1000-1100 m.a.s.l.); a solid range encompasses north-eastern and south-western flanks of st. Bohdan and m. Yavirnyk rests upon the right bank of Prutets Chemyhivsky in st. Pohary and st. Zakaminnia, another one residing on south-eastern falls of the Svynianka mountain. Primary forest types are moist spruce co-pine and green pure co-spruce wood;
  7. spruce with tinctures of Swiss stone pine (1100-1300 m.a.s.l.) - a single narrow range dwelling upon north-eastern western and north-western flanks of m. Homiak. Primary forest type is cedar and spruce co-pine wood (average timber yield 190.0 m3/ha, mean increment 2.05 m3/ha);
  8. subalpine belt of Swiss-pine krummholz woods (1450-1665 m.a.s.l.), covered with impenetrable formations of Swiss mountain pine in shape of moderate ranges upon the north-eastern slopes of Homiak and Syniak mountains. Primary forest type is moist Swiss-pine wood.

The up-to-date age composition of forests is the following: young stand - 9.95%, middle-aged - 72.2%, ripening stand - 1%, mature and overmature - 16.9%.

The area of this department involves extremely valuable mountain ecosystems of Gorgany with importance in various aspects, particularly landscape and ecological, zoogeographical and nature-preservational.

This is the place of concentration of multiple endemic and rare plant species. Particularly, here were the some of them detected which are enlisted in the Red Book of Ukraine, namely Swiss stone pine, wolf’s bane, Alpine aster, perennial honesty, Carpathian centaury, red helleborine, meadow saffron, crocus heufellianus, royal helleborine, violet helleborine, fragrant orchid, Leucojum vernum L., Turk’s cap lily, common twayblade, burnt-tip orchid, lesser butterfly-orchid, stiff clublike, northern firmoss.

The relict fauna is similarly abundant in species enrolled in the Red Book of Ukraine, factually Carpathian newt, Alpine newt, fire salamander, smooth snake, black stork, lesser spotted eagle, ural owl, Mediterranean (Miller’s) water shrew, lesser horseshoe bat, European snow vole, montane water vole, stoat, badger, European otter, wildcat, common lynx, European mink.

The waterfall of Huk is regarded a natural complex of special importance (NCSI) and is situated in 6/11, Zhenets stow.

Visitors may enjoy several ecological-educational tours: ‘To Homiak’, ‘To Yavirnyk’, ‘To Huk waterfall’, ‘Stow of Veredivskyi - Mount of Homiak’, ‘Recreational zone of Zhenets’. Within the latter two paths ‘Zhenets-Homiak’ are trailed.

The department’s territory holds seven natural complexes of special importance. A peculiar place of interest for tourists is the Huk waterfall (12.5 m high) formed on the bedrock of stryi svita lithostratigraphic subdivision.

Primary objectives of the department are as follows:

  1. preservation of natural complexes;
  2. foundation of new places for recreation;
  3. educational work and promotion of environment-related knowledge;
  4. scientific research and study of natural complexes and their changeability in context of recreational use of the territory.

Tatariv nature-oriented science and research department

(land area of 3 270 ha)

Tatariv nature-oriented science and research department is headquartered in the north-eastern part of the park on the left bank of the Prut river on the outskirts of Tatariv and Vorokhta villages.

The highest peaks of the department are the mountains of Mahura (1288 m.a.s.l.), Rebrovach (1222 m.a.s.l.) and Hrebin (1040 m.a.s.l.).

This locality is characterised by the moderately-continental climate with considerable annual amount of precipitation (950-1000 mm).

Average annual temperature is 4.9 centigrade. Vegetation duration period makes up about 180 days. Prevalent are the winds of south-westerly direction. Permanent snow cover is formed in December and usually fades between April and May.

Waterway network is represented with the bunch of Prut’s right tributaries, namely Pigy, Verbivskyi.

Forest is the dominant vegetation type of this area (3102.7 ha), the almost absolute prevalence (75.0%) belonging to evergreen coniferous woods. The local forest cover attains the mark of 95,0%. In terms of forestry zoning the vegetation on the territory refers to the Carpathian mountain circuit, the northern part pertinent to the Outer Carpathians with beech and dark coniferous woods, and the southern to the high mountain area of fir and spruce and genuinely spruce woods.

The territory is encompassed by the nature reserve fund, therein divided into four functional areas, among which the greatest amount of forests (84.7%) is embraced by the zone of controlled recreation, 15.1% comes to the conservation area and the remainder of 0.1% - to the static recreation zone.

The most part (54.4%) are the woods of natural origin.

The dominant forest-forming species are represented with silver fir covering only 11.0% of area. Species having the dominant position of the natural abundance is spruce (53.0%). Somewhat smaller areas are covered with European beech (16.0%), Scotch pine (11.0%) and birch (8.0%). Negligible part belongs to grey alder (1.0%).

Vertical zoning of woods is constituted by the following ranges:

  1. pine with tinctures of spruce (700-1050 m.a.s.l.); a solid range is located on south-western flanks of st. Bredulets, another separate one residing upon southern slopes between stows of Verbivske and Voitul. Primary forest type is green spruce co-pine wood (average timber yield 340.0 m3/ha, mean increment 2.8 m3/ha);
  2. beech and fir with tinctures of spruce (720-900 m.a.s.l.); a solid massive range is stretching from western flanks near st. Bredulets up to st. Voitul (the right side of Prut), another isolated one resides over northern slopes of m. Mahura (the left side of Prut). Primary forest type is moist spruce and co-fir wood (average timber yield 730.0 m3/ha, mean increment 6.0 m3/ha);
  3. beech, fir and spruce (800-1050 m.a.s.l.); a solid range resides in the Voitul stow. Primary forest type is moist beech and fir co-spruce wood (average timber yield 625.0 m3/ha, mean increment 5.7 m3/ha);
  4. fir and spruce (900-1050 m.a.s.l.); a solid range is located in the upstream of the Piga river. Primary forest type is moist fir co-spruce wood (average timber yield 715.0 m3/ha, mean increment 6.0 m3/ha);
  5. pure spruce (1000-1100 m.a.s.l.); a narrow solid range dwelling upon south-western flanks of Lisnova chain in the upstream of Prut’s right tributaries. Primary forest type is moist green co-spruce wood.

The up-to-date age composition of forests is the following: young stand - 24.5%, middle-aged - 63.8%, ripening stand - 1%, mature and overmature - 10.7%.

The area of this department involves extremely valuable mountain ecosystems of Gorgany with importance in various aspects, particularly landscape and ecological, zoogeographical and nature-preservational.

This is the place of concentration of multiple endemic and rare plant species. Particularly, here were some of them detected which are enlisted in the Red Book of Ukraine, namely great masterwort, belladonna, wolf’s bane, Turk’s cap lily, Leucojum vernum L., meadow saffron, crocus heufellianus, fragrant orchid, lesser butterfly-orchid, Traunsteinera globosa, western marsh orchid. Background species include declined violet, Dentaria glandulosa, lingonberry, blackberry, Alpine strawberry, meadowsweet, Ukrainian thyme, two-leaved bead-ruby, Paris herb and many others.

The relict fauna is similarly abundant in species enrolled in the Red Book of Ukraine, factually Carpathian newt, Alpine newt, fire salamander, smooth snake, golden eagle, Carpathian grouse, Eurasian pigmy owl, ural owl, common firecrest, montane water vole, European otter, common lynx, brown bear.

Other species of animals may be also met in Tatariv department, such as brown trout, three-toed woodpecker, white-backed woodpecker, spotted nutcracker, Eurasian red squirrel, red deer, roe deer, wild boar. With the aim of fauna preservation, personnel of the department prepare feeding fields and clumps of broadleaves expanded with natural fields. They also carry out nourishing of animal in winter time.

Beneficial climate, mountain relief, picturesque scenery of Carpathian forests and meadows, dense entwinement of fast-pouring waterways, incredible diversity of floral and animal world in combination with historical and architectural monuments of the past - all these are the factors of dramatic amplification of recreation potential. A couple of recreational areas, ‘Rebrovach’ and ‘Tramplin’, are equipped with small architectural constructions for the pleasure of visitors.

Primary objectives of the department are as follows:

  1. preservation of natural complexes;
  2. foundation of new places for recreation;
  3. educational work and promotion of environment-related knowledge;
  4. scientific research and study of natural complexes and their changeability in context of recreational use of the territory.

Yablunytsia nature-oriented science and research department

(land area of 2 575 ha)

Yablunytsia nature-oriented science and research department is headquartered in the north-western part of the park on the left bank of the Prut river on the outskirts of Yablunytsia, Tatariv and Polyanytsia villages.

The highest peak of the department is the mountain of Shcherbaniv Verkh (1110 m.a.s.l.).

This locality is characterised by the moderately-continental climate with considerable annual amount of precipitation (930 mm). Average annual temperature is 4.9 centigrade. Vegetation duration period makes up about 180 days. Prevalent are the winds of south-westerly direction. Permanent snow cover is formed in December and usually fades between April and May.

Waterway network is represented with Prutets Yablunetskyi (the left tributary of Prut) and Veredivskyi river.

Forest is the dominant vegetation type of this area (2304.5 ha), the almost absolute prevalence (86.0%) belonging to evergreen coniferous woods. The local forest cover attains the mark of 89,5%. In terms of forestry zoning the vegetation on the territory refers to the Carpathian mountain circuit, the northern part pertinent to the Outer Carpathians with beech and dark coniferous woods, and the southern to the high mountain area of fir and spruce and genuinely spruce woods.

The territory is encompassed by the nature reserve fund, therein divided into four functional areas, among which the greatest amount of forests (92.7%) is embraced by the zone of controlled recreation, 7.1% comes to the conservation area, 0.08% reside in utility zone, and the remainder of 0.03% - to the static recreation zone.

The most part (72.5%) are the woods of natural origin.

The dominant forest-forming species are represented with silver fir and spruce. The latter has the dominant position according to the natural abundance covering 75.0% of area. Somewhat smaller parts are occupied with silver fir (11.0%) and European beech (16.0%). Minor areas belong to sycamore (1.0%), grey alder (1.0%), birch (1.0%) and mountain elm (0.05%).

Vertical zoning of woods is constituted by the following ranges:

  1. beech and fir with tinctures of spruce (700-900 m.a.s.l.); solid massive ranges are stretching across north-eastern flanks of m. Hreblia (the left side of Prut) and north-western slopes of Prutets Yablunetskyi’s right bank, another isolated one residing on the left side of Prutets Yablunetskyi, which embraces north-western flanks of Vilsha and Piatyhatky stows. Primary forest type is moist spruce and beech co-fir wood (average timber yield 820.0 m3/ha, mean increment 8.6 m3/ha);
  2. pure grey alder (720-730 m.a.s.l.); a very narrow range is stretching along the left riverside of Prutets Yablunetskyi. Primary forest type is green pure grey alder co-oak wood;
  3. beech, fir and spruce (720-1050 m.a.s.l.); isolated moderate ranges are situated on south-eastern slopes of st. Piatyhatka, southern falls along Serednii river and covers a number of small-size massives close by Yablunytsia village. Primary forest types are moist beech and fir co-spruce wood (average timber yield 750.0 m3/ha, mean increment 8.6 m3/ha) and moist beech and fir spruce wood (average timber yield 980.0 m3/ha, mean increment 10.5 m3/ha);
  4. fir and spruce (850-950 m.a.s.l.); a solid range is located upon the northern and north-western flanks of the right riverside of Prutets Yablunetskyi. Primary forest type is moist fir co-spruce wood (average timber yield 620.0 m3/ha, mean increment 6.6 m3/ha).

The up-to-date age composition of forests is the following: young stand - 9.37%, middle-aged - 81.22%, ripening stand - 0.3%, mature and overmature - 9.11%.

The area of this department involves extremely valuable mountain ecosystems of Carpathians with importance in various aspects, particularly landscape and ecological, zoogeographical and nature-preservational.

This is the place of concentration of multiple endemic and rare plant species. The relic component in the flora of this region is quite considerable. Particularly, here were some of them detected which are enlisted in the Red Book of Ukraine, namely wolf’s bane, great masterwort, northern firmoss, common moonwort, red helleborine, meadow saffron, moorland spotted orchid, western marsh orchid, royal helleborine, violet helleborine, fragrant orchid, Leucojum vernum L., Turk’s cap lily, perennial honesty, stiff clublike, burnt-tip orchid, lesser butterfly-orchid, Traunsteinera globosa.

The relict fauna is similarly abundant in species enrolled in the Red Book of Ukraine. These are 12 of them on this territory, namely Carpathian newt, Alpine newt, fire salamander, smooth snake, Carpathian grouse, Mediterranean (Miller’s) water shrew, montane water vole, stoat, badger, European otter, ural owl, common firecrest.

Monuments of history and culture are available to the attention of visitors on the territory of Yablunytsia department. Particularly, mention should be made about the grave of von Konfor, the General of Austrian-Hungarian army, who deceased in October, 1916 during the Brusilov breakthrough in World War I.

The two-kilometer-long funicular in Vorokhta lifts newcomers to the stow of Piatyhatky where the complex of sport facilities is situated. In winter, this is the venue of biathlon, cross-country skiing and jumping race competitions.

One of main Carpathian passes, the 921-meter-high Yablunytsia mountain pass, is trailed at the boundary of Yablunytsia department.

Primary objectives of the department are as follows:

  1. preservation of natural complexes;
  2. foundation of new places for recreation;
  3. educational work and promotion of environment-related knowledge;
  4. scientific research and study of natural complexes and their changeability in context of recreational use of the territory.

Vorokhta nature-oriented science and research department

(land area of 4 401 ha)

Vorokhta nature-oriented science and research department is headquartered in the south-western part of the park on banks of the Prut river on the outskirts of Vorokhta village.

The highest peaks of the department are the mountains of Kukol (1542 m.a.s.l.), Hostra Klyva (1228 m.a.s.l.) and Kychera (1248 m.a.s.l.).

This locality is characterised by the moderately-continental climate with considerable annual amount of precipitation (950 mm). Average annual temperature is 4.3 centigrade. Vegetation duration period makes up about 202 days. Prevalent are the winds of south-westerly direction. Permanent snow cover is formed in December and usually fades between April and May.

Waterway network is represented with rivers of Verkhnii Bahonchyk, Nyzhnii Bahonchyk and Voitul.

Forest is the dominant vegetation type of this area (4105.8 ha), the almost absolute prevalence (90.5%) belonging to evergreen coniferous woods. The local forest cover attains the mark of 93,2%. In terms of forestry zoning the vegetation on the territory refers to the Carpathian mountain circuit, the northern part pertinent to the Outer Carpathians with beech and dark coniferous woods, and the southern to the high mountain area of fir and spruce and genuinely spruce woods.

The territory is encompassed by the nature reserve fund, therein divided into four functional areas, among which the greatest amount of forests (99.3%) is embraced by the zone of controlled recreation, 0.6% comes to the static recreation zone, and the remainder of 0.1% - to the conservation area.

The most part (52.9%) are the woods of natural origin.

The dominant forest-forming species are represented with spruce having the dominant position of the local natural abundance with 85.0%. Somewhat smaller parts are occupied with European beech (8.0%) and silver fir (6.0%). Minor areas belong to birch (0.5%), grey alder (1.0%), and Scotch pine (approximately 0.5%).

Vertical zoning of woods is constituted by the following ranges:

  1. beech, fir and spruce (750-1050 m.a.s.l.); a solid massive range is spreading from the northern part of the department along Voitul river with its multiple tributaries and from eastern flanks of m. Oseredok pervading lower reaches of Havrylets and Foreshchanka rivers down to Zavoiela stow. Primary forest types are moist beech and fir co-spruce wood (average timber yield 960.5 m3/ha, mean increment 8.2 m3/ha) and moist beech and fir spruce wood (average timber yield 805.5 m3/ha, mean increment 6.9 m3/ha);
  2. fir and spruce (750-800 m.a.s.l.); a moderate range lies on the left bank of Prut. Primary forest type is moist fir co-spruce wood (average timber yield 570.0 m3/ha, mean increment 5.5 m3/ha);
  3. pure grey alder (870 m.a.s.l.); a narrow range is located in Foreshchanka’s estuary. Primary forest type is green pure grey alder co-oak wood;
  4. pure spruce (950-1200 m.a.s.l.); a massive solid range spanning from north-eastern flanks of Kychera mountain to highmoors of Rudiak stow and continues upon northern and north-eastern falls across Havrylets river. Primary forest types are as follows: moist co-spruce wood; green co-spruce wood; moist spruce co-pine wood; green spruce and pine wood (cranberry type). Co-oak woods are characterized by average timber yield of 480.0 m3/ha and mean increment of 4.5 m3/ha. Co-pine woods correspondingly show indications of 143.9 m3/ha average timber yield and 1.0 m3/ha mean increment.

The up-to-date age composition of forests is the following: young stand - 11.53%, middle-aged - 86.39%, ripening stand - 0.95%, mature and overmature - 1.13%.

The area of this department involves extremely valuable mountain ecosystems of Carpathians with importance in various aspects, particularly landscape and ecological, zoogeographical and nature-preservational.

This is the place of concentration of multiple endemic and rare plant species. The relic component in the flora of this region is quite considerable. Particularly, here were some of them detected which are enlisted in the Red Book of Ukraine, namely small cranberry, wolf’s bane, Turk’s cap lily, meadow saffron, Leucojum vernum L., crocus heufellianus, lesser butterfly-orchid.

Background species include declined violet, lingonberry, Alpine strawberry, Ukrainian thyme, Paris herb and many others.

The relict fauna is similarly abundant in species enrolled in the Red Book of Ukraine. These are 12 of them on this territory, namely Carpathian newt, Alpine newt, fire salamander, ural owl, common firecrest, montane water vole, stoat, European otter, common lynx, brown bear, Perla maxima, golden-ringed dragonfly, European swallowtail, scarlet tiger moth, blue underwing, brown trout, white-backed woodpecker, three-toed woodpecker, spotted nutcracker, Eurasian red squirrel, red deer, roe deer, wild boar. With the aim of fauna preservation, personnel of the department prepare feeding fields and clumps of broadleaves expanded with natural fields. They also carry out nourishing of animal in winter time.

Recreational area ‘Bahonchyk’ together with rest centre ‘Svitodar’ are situated in the territory of Vorokhta department adding a recreational component to its nature-oriented concept.

Historical and architectural heritage of this region is represented with the Church of Nativity of Virgin Mary (built in 1615).

Peculiar healing qualities of air in Vorokhta hollow are beneficial for treatment of pulmonologic ailments. Voitul stow is the place where a hydrosulphuric spring is located.

Primary objectives of the department are as follows:

  1. preservation of natural complexes;
  2. foundation of new places for recreation;
  3. educational work and promotion of environment-related knowledge;
  4. scientific research and study of natural complexes and their changeability in context of recreational use of the territory.

Voronenka nature-oriented science and research department

(land area of 2 623 ha)

Voronenka nature-oriented science and research department is headquartered in the central part of the park on banks of the Prut river on the outskirts of Vorokhta village.

The highest peaks of the department are the mountains of Pid-Berdia (1387 m.a.s.l.), Kechera (1225 m.a.s.l.) and Oseredok (914 m.a.s.l.).

This locality is characterised by the moderately-continental climate with considerable annual amount of precipitation (950 mm). Average annual temperature is 4.9 centigrade. Vegetation duration period makes up about 202 days. Prevalent are the winds of south-westerly direction. Permanent snow cover is formed in December and usually fades between April and May.

Waterway network is represented with rivers of Paradzhyn Nimakivskyi and Paradzhyn Lomparivskyi.

Forest is the dominant vegetation type of this area (2499.0 ha), the almost absolute prevalence (91.0%) belonging to evergreen coniferous woods. The local forest cover attains the mark of 95,4%. In terms of forestry zoning the vegetation on the territory refers to the Carpathian mountain circuit, the northern part pertinent to the Outer Carpathians with beech and dark coniferous woods, and the southern to the high mountain area of fir and spruce and genuinely spruce woods.

The territory is encompassed by the nature reserve fund, therein divided into four functional areas, among which the greatest amount of forests (80.0%) is embraced by the zone of controlled recreation, 19.9% comes to the the conservation area, and the remainder of 0.1% - to static recreation zone.

The most part (59.3%) are the woods of natural origin.

The dominant forest-forming species are represented with spruce having the dominant position of the local natural abundance with 69.0%. Somewhat smaller parts are occupied with silver fir (22.0%). Even smaller area goes to European beech (7.0%). Minor areas belong to birch (1.0%), grey alder (1.0%), and Scotch pine (approximately 0.05%).

Vertical zoning of woods is constituted by the following ranges:

  1. beech and fir with tinctures of spruce (720-750 m.a.s.l.); a moderate range is stretching from northern side of Horstyi Hrun stow reaching the upstream of Paradzhyn Nimakivskyi river. Primary forest type is moist spruce and beech fir wood (average timber yield 1050.0 m3/ha, mean increment 9.9 m3/ha);
  2. beech, fir and spruce (800-1100 m.a.s.l.); a solid massive range is spreading from the southern flanks of Perehrestia and Hostryi Hrun stow encompassing low reaches and almost entire upstream of Paradzhyn Nimakivskyi river up to southern falls of Zagrava stow. Primary forest type is moist beech and fir spruce wood (average timber yield 960.5 m3/ha, mean increment 8.2 m3/ha);
  3. fir and spruce (720-750 m.a.s.l.); a moderate range lies on southern and south-eastern flanks of st. Hostryi Hrun. Primary forest type is moist fir co-spruce wood (average timber yield 570.0 m3/ha, mean increment 5.5 m3/ha);
  4. pure spruce (950-1200 m.a.s.l.); a massive solid range spanning from upstream of Paradzyn Nimakivskyi and Paradzhyn Lomparivskyi rivers, to southern flanks of southern flanks of Kychera mountain. Primary forest types are as follows: moist co-spruce wood; green co-spruce wood; moist spruce co-pine wood; green spruce and pine wood. Co-oak woods are characterized by average timber yield of 380.0 m3/ha and mean increment of 4.5 m3/ha. Co-pine woods correspondingly show indications of 143.9 m3/ha average timber yield and 1.3 m3/ha mean increment.

The up-to-date age composition of forests is the following: young stand - 7.75%, middle-aged - 88.15%, ripening stand - 2.62%, mature and overmature - 1.48%.

The area of this department involves extremely valuable mountain ecosystems of Vorokhta-Putyliv low-hill terrain with importance in various aspects, particularly landscape and ecological, zoogeographical and nature-preservational.

Two recreational zones are distinguished on the territory of Voronenka department, namely “Kolysanka’ situated on the right bank of of Paradzhyn Lamparivskyi, and ‘Hostryi Hrun’ by the road to Voronenka settlement.

This is the place of concentration of multiple endemic and rare plant species. The relic component in the flora of this region is quite considerable. Particularly, here were some of them detected which are enlisted in the Red Book of Ukraine, namely wolf’s bane, great masterwort, red helleborine, meadow saffron, crocus heufellianus, moorland spotted orchid, western marsh orchid, royal helleborine, violet helleborine, fragrant orchid, Leucojum vernum L., Turk’s cap lily, common twayblade, henbane bell, perennial honesty, stiff clublike, burnt-tip orchid, lesser butterfly-orchid, Traunsteinera globosa, northern firmoss.

The relict fauna is similarly abundant in species enrolled in the Red Book of Ukraine. These are 12 of them on this territory, namely Carpathian newt, Alpine newt, fire salamander, black stork, Eurasian pigmy owl, ural owl, Mediterranean (Miller’s) water shrew, montane water vole, stoat, badger, European otter, wildcat, common lynx, brown bear.

Plenty of historic and cultural monuments are available to the attention of visitors on the territory of Voronenka department. In 1890, the construction of Stanislav-Rakhiv railway was launched and completed in 1895. Here the places of interest include, particularly, the tunnel of one kilometer length (built in 1894). Constructors of the tunnel were fighters for independence of Italy. construction materials were extracted and prepared in the stow of Lomparivka. Purposely, a two-kilometer line of light narrow-gauge railway, ulteriorly destroyed, was laid to the quarry. The tunnel was being simultaneously constructed from both ends, so when the workers did not meet each other on the planned day, chief engineer even though he had been mistaken in his calculations. In a day, however, everything went all right.

Newcomers and nature friends may enjoy true relaxation in recreational areas “Hostryi Hrun’, ‘Kolysanka’, or breathe in the spirit of mountains wandering the ecologic-educational path of ‘Lomparivka-Prypir-Bukovyna’.

Primary objectives of the department are as follows:

  1. preservation of natural complexes;
  2. foundation of new places for recreation;
  3. educational work and promotion of environment-related knowledge;
  4. scientific research and study of natural complexes and their changeability in context of recreational use of the territory.

Goverla nature-oriented science and research department

(land area of 5 570 ha)

Goverla nature-oriented science and research department is headquartered in the south-western part of the park in the upstream of the Prut river on the outskirts of Vorokhta village.

The highest peaks of the department are the mountains of Goverla (2067 m.a.s.l. - the highest point of the Ukrainian Carpathians), Turkul (1933 m.a.s.l.), Breskul (1911 m.a.s.l.), Shpytsi (1863 m.a.s.l.), Dantsyzh (1855 m.a.s.l.), Homul (1788 m.a.s.l.), Pozhyzhevska (1822 m.a.s.l.), Velyka Koznieska (1573 m.a.s.l.), Velyka Maryshevska (1536 m.a.s.l.) and Kukul (1539 m.a.s.l.).

This locality is characterised by the moderately-continental climate with considerable annual amount of precipitation (944 mm). Average annual temperature is 4.3 centigrade. Vegetation duration period makes up about 195 days. Prevalent are the winds of south-westerly direction. Permanent snow cover is formed in November and usually fades between May and June.

Waterway network is represented with Prut which has its rise at the bottom of Goverla and forms the Huk waterfall branching into several streams. The river basin of Goverla department is also contributed by Prut’s tributaries, namely Kukol, Fovresok, Fovreshchyna, Tsybulnyk, Nesamovytyi, Homulets, Maryshevska and Ozirnyi rivers.

Right at the lap of Turkul there is the highest-altitude lake of Carpathian national nature preservation park, Nesamovyte (1750 m.a.s.l.).

Forest is the dominant vegetation type of this area (4532.2 ha), the almost absolute prevalence (89.0%) belonging to evergreen coniferous woods. The local forest cover attains the mark of 81,4%. In terms of forestry zoning the vegetation on the territory refers to the Carpathian mountain circuit, the northern part pertinent to the Outer Carpathians with beech and dark coniferous woods, and the southern to the high mountain area of fir and spruce and genuinely spruce woods.

The territory is encompassed by the nature reserve fund, therein divided into four functional areas, among which the greatest amount of forests (77.8%) is embraced by the conservation zone, 21.7% are distributed in the area of controlled recreation, 0.48% come to the static recreation zone, and the remainder of 0.02% to the utility zone.

The most part (57.5%) are the woods of natural origin.

The dominant forest-forming species are represented with spruce having the dominant position of the local natural abundance with 64.0%. Somewhat smaller part is occupied with mountain pine (16%). Even smaller areas go to European beech (4.0%), silver fir (9.0%), sycamore (3.0%) and European green alder (3.0%). Negligibly minor areas belong to birch (0.5%), grey alder (0.5%), Scotch pine (approximately 0.5%) and mountain (witch) elm (0.005%).

Vertical zoning of woods is constituted by the following ranges:

  1. beech and fir with tinctures of spruce (900-950 m.a.s.l.); a moderate narrow range is located on western versants of Ozirnyi stow as well as on north-eastern downhills along the left bank of Prut close by the stow of Babyna Yama. Primary forest type is moist spruce and beech fir wood (average timber yield 805.5 m3/ha, mean increment 6.9 m3/ha);
  2. beech, fir and spruce (950-1050 m.a.s.l.); a solid massive range is spreading from the north-eastern slopes of Kryve Hede stow to the estuary of r. Maryshevska. Another isolated one resides upon north-western slopes along the right bank of Prut and to the Ozirnyi stow. Primary forest type is moist beech and fir co-spruce wood (average timber yield 805.5 m3/ha, mean increment 6.9 m3/ha);
  3. pure spruce (1050-1450 m.a.s.l.); a massive solid range spanning from northern versants of Velyka Koznieska mountain in the upstream of Fovresok’s tributaries up to north-eastern flanks of m. Velyka Maryshevska upstream, while another separate one spans from north-eastern downhills of Zarosliak stow to northern and north-eastern flanks of m. Homul. Primary forest type is moist co-spruce wood (average timber yield 345.0 m3/ha, mean increment 3.9 m3/ha);
  4. subalpine belt of Swiss-pine krummholz woods (1450-1750 m.a.s.l.), covered with impenetrable formations of Swiss mountain pine in shape of a solid dense range stretching from the eastern slopes of Dantsyzh meadow and to the north-eastern downhills of Homul meadow, together with another separated one situated upon the north-eastern versant of Zarosliak and Pozhyzhevska meadows.Primary forest type is moist Swiss-pine wood;
  5. alpine belt (1750-2061 m.a.s.l.) covered with grass and suffrutescent alpine meadows of high-hill tops of Goverla, Breskul, Turkul and Shpytsi mountains.

The up-to-date age composition of forests is the following: young stand - 5.8%, middle-aged - 76.85%, ripening stand - 0.75%, mature and overmature - 16.6%.

The area of this department involves extremely valuable mountain ecosystems of montane terrain with importance in various aspects, particularly landscape and ecological, zoogeographical and nature-preservational.

This is the place of concentration of multiple endemic and rare plant species. The relic component in the flora of this region is quite considerable. Particularly, there are 450 species of tracheophytes (vascular plants) detected here, 61 of them enlisted in the Red Book of Ukraine, namely Carpathian rhododendron, golden root, wolf’s bane, ramsons, Carpathian harebell, yellow gentian, Carpathian gentian, great masterwort, red helleborine, meadow saffron, crocus heufellianus, moorland spotted orchid, western marsh orchid, violet helleborine, fragrant orchid, Leucojum vernum L., perennial honesty, stiff clublike, burnt-tip orchid, lesser butterfly-orchid, Traunsteinera globosa, northern firmoss.

The relict fauna is similarly abundant in species enrolled in the Red Book of Ukraine, namely Carpathian newt, Alpine newt, fire salamander, common lynx, European snow vole, Mediterranean (Miller’s) water shrew. The bird life is actually rather rich as well, represented with golden eagle, ural owl, rock thrush, golden mountain thrush, peregrine falcon, horned owl, boreal owl.

Two recreational zones are distinguished on the territory of Goverla department, namely ‘Tyrlych’ situated on the right bank of Prut nearby the trout farming unit of Vorokhta state forest administration, and ‘Goverla’ located right close to department’s headquarters.

Objects of recreational interest include ecological-educational tours ‘To Goverla’, ‘To the Lake of Nesamovyte’, as wells as recreational zones ‘Tyrlych’ and ‘Goverla’.

Primary objectives of the department are as follows:

  1. preservation of natural complexes;
  2. foundation of new places for recreation;
  3. educational work and promotion of environment-related knowledge;
  4. scientific research and study of natural complexes and their changeability in context of recreational use of the territory.

Bystrets nature-oriented science and research department

(land area of 2 564 ha)

Bystrets nature-oriented science and research department is headquartered in the southern part of the park on the right bank of Bystrets river on the outskirts of Bystrets and Dzembronia villages (Verkhovyna district).

Geological composition of Bystrets department is typical for flysch sequence of north-eastern macroslope of the Carpathian system. It belongs to the most sizeable Chornohora tectonic zone. Geomorphological subdivision is comprised of typical for montane terrains landscapes which had been undergoing the influence of Pleistocene ice age as morphosculptural elements of relief.

The highest peaks of the department are the mountains of Smotrych (1991 m.a.s.l.), Stepanets (1649 m.a.s.l.), Shpytsi (1863 m.a.s.l.) and Rebra (2001 m.a.s.l.). Here one can find the most fascinating relic elements of relief in carpathians of old englacial nature, namely double-strate cirques (Velyki / Large and Mali / Small Kotly) and intercirquous pens (Velyki / Large and Mali / Small Kizly) which had been formed at contact sheers of Pleistocene glaciers.

This locality is characterised by the moderately-continental climate with considerable annual amount of precipitation (950 mm). Average annual temperature is 4.3 centigrade. Vegetation duration period makes up about 190 days. Prevalent are the winds of south-westerly direction. Permanent snow cover is formed in November and usually fades between May and June.

Waterway network is represented with Bystrets river being the left tributary of r. Chornyi Cheremosh, together with its affluent streams of Kremenystyi, Maryshevskyi, Gadzhyna and Kyzia. The brook of Munchel can boast a natural cascade with general height of water falls of about 20 metres.

Forest is the dominant vegetation type of this area (2279.4 ha), the almost absolute prevalence (90.5%) belonging to evergreen coniferous woods. In terms of forestry zoning the vegetation on the territory refers to the Carpathian mountain circuit, the northern part pertinent to the Outer Carpathians with beech and dark coniferous woods, and the southern to the high mountain area of fir and spruce and genuinely spruce woods.

The territory is encompassed by the nature reserve fund, therein divided into three functional areas, among which the greatest amount of forests (59.3%) is embraced by the conservation zone, while another 40.7% are distributed in the area of controlled recreation.

The most part (88.0%) are the woods of natural origin.

The dominant forest-forming species are represented with spruce having the dominant position of the local natural abundance with 58.5%. Somewhat smaller part is occupied with mountain pine (28.5%). Even smaller areas go to European beech (5.0%), silver fir (4.0%), and European green alder (3.0%). Negligibly minor areas belong to sycamore (0.5%), Swiss stone pine (0.5%), birch (0.5%), grey alder (0.5%), and Scotch pine (approximately 0.05%).

Vertical zoning of woods is constituted by the following ranges:

  1. beech and fir with tinctures of spruce (680-720 m.a.s.l.); a moderate narrow range is stretching along Kyzia river and its small tributaries, as well as on abrupt north-eastern dropoffs along Kremenystyi river. Primary forest type is moist spruce and beech fir wood (average timber yield 720.0 m3/ha, mean increment 6.5 m3/ha);
  2. beech, fir and spruce (750-1050 m.a.s.l.); the main solid massive range is spreading along Kremenystyi river to north-eastern flanks near st. Kedrovatyi; smaller separate ones are located on the south-eastern downhills of the Smotrych mountain and the eastern slopes along Bystrets and Cheremosh rivers. Primary forest type is moist beech and fir co-spruce wood (average timber yield 805.5 m3/ha, mean increment 7.3 m3/ha);
  3. fir and spruce (850-900 m.a.s.l.); a moderate range lies on northern flanks in the upstream of Kremenystyi river and its affluents, another isolated one spanning over north-eastern versants of Smotrych. Primary forest type is moist fir co-spruce wood (average timber yield 555.0 m3/ha, mean increment 4.9 m3/ha);
  4. pure spruce (850-1450 m.a.s.l.); a moderate solid range located in the upstream of affluents of Kremenystyi river, another isolated one spanning over north-eastern versants of Smotrych. Primary forest type is moist pure co-pine wood (average timber yield 175.0 m3/ha, mean increment 1.9 m3/ha);
  5. spruce with tinctures of Swiss stone pine (1250-1300 m.a.s.l.) - a single narrow range dwelling in the conservation stow Kedrovatyi on the eastern and north-eastern rocky hills of the mountain of Munchel being the habitat of the rare relic species, Swiss stone pine. Primary forest type is moist cedar and spruce co-pine wood (average timber yield 190.0 m3/ha, mean increment 2.05 m3/ha);
  6. subalpine belt of Swiss-pine krummholz woods (1450-1650 m.a.s.l.), covered with impenetrable formations of Swiss mountain pine in shape of massive dense ranges stretching from the eastern slopes of Homul and Smotrych meadows and to the north-eastern downhills of the Rebra mountain. Primary forest type is moist Swiss-pine wood;
  7. alpine belt (1650-2001 m.a.s.l.) covered with grass alpine meadows of high-hill tops of Rebra, Smotrych and Shpytsi mountains.

The up-to-date age composition of forests is the following: young stand - 62.51%, middle-aged - 16.1%, ripening stand - 10.71%, mature and overmature - 10.7%.

The area of this department involves extremely valuable mountain ecosystems of montane terrain in the highest eastern region of the Ukrainian Carpathians, with importance in various aspects, particularly landscape and ecological, zoogeographical and nature-preservational. This is the place of concentration of multiple endemic and rare plant species and subspecies which constitute 5% of the entire Carpathian flora.

The relic and rarity component in the flora of this region is quite considerable: wolf’s bane, Carpathian rhododendron, northern firmoss, Swiss stone pine, yellow monkshood, Alpine pasqueflower, dwarf willow, mountain houseleek, golden root, yellow gentian, Carpathian harebell, Alpine aster, ramsons, common snowdrop, crocus heufellianus, lesser butterfly-orchid, great masterwort, rock sedge, common spotted orchid, military orchid, declined violet.

The fauna of Bystrets department is similarly abundant in endemic species. It is most widely represented by brown bear, common lynx, wildcat, red deer, roe deer, wolf, fox, stoat, badger, European otter, wild boar, European mink, European snow vole, Mediterranean (Miller’s) water shrew, Alpine shrew. The bird life is actually rather versatile as well, including rock thrush, golden eagle, ural owl, horned owl, grouse. Rivers are harboured with Danube salmon (huchen), brown trout; moisture-loving are Carpathian newt and fire salamander.

Bystrets department is one of most attended by campers and vacationers in the Carpathian park. That was the reason why ‘To the Pip Ivan mountain’ ecological-educational tour has been established.

Primary objectives of the department are as follows:

  1. preservation of natural complexes;
  2. foundation of new places for recreation;
  3. educational work and promotion of environment-related knowledge;
  4. scientific research and study of natural complexes and their changeability in context of recreational use of the territory.

Chornohora nature-oriented science and research department

(land area of 2 328 ha)

Chornohora nature-oriented science and research department is headquartered in the southern part of the park on the left bank of Chornyi Cheremosh river on the outskirts of Shybena and Zelene villages (Verkhovyna district).

The highest peaks of the department are the mountains of Staiky (1717 m.a.s.l.), Yavirnyk (1373 m.a.s.l.) and Podorovatyi (1449 m.a.s.l.).

This locality is characterised by the moderately-continental climate with considerable annual amount of precipitation (1000 mm). Average annual temperature is 4.9 centigrade. Vegetation duration period makes up about 200 days. Prevalent are the winds of south-westerly direction. Permanent snow cover is formed in November and usually fades between May and June.

Waterway network is represented with Chornyi Cheremosh together with its left affluents, namely Shybenka, Gropynets, Podorovatyi, Susharka and Pohorilets.

Forest is the dominant vegetation type of this area (2208.5 ha), the almost absolute prevalence (91.0%) belonging to evergreen coniferous woods. The local forest cover attains the mark of 94,8%. In terms of forestry zoning the vegetation on the territory refers to the Carpathian mountain circuit, the northern part pertinent to the Outer Carpathians with beech and dark coniferous woods, and the southern to the high mountain area of fir and spruce and genuinely spruce woods.

The territory is encompassed by the nature reserve fund, therein divided into four functional areas, among which the greatest amount of forests (97.0%) is embraced by the zone of controlled recreation and the remainder of 3.0% belongs to the conservation area.

The prevailing part of woods (57.4%) are cultivated timber stands.

The dominant forest-forming species are represented with spruce having the dominant position of the local natural abundance with 83.0%. Smaller areas go to silver fir (8.0%), European beech (3.0%), grey alder (3.0%) and sycamore (2.0%). Negligibly minor area belongs to birch (1.0%).

Vertical zoning of woods is constituted by the following ranges:

  1. beech and fir with tinctures of spruce (750-850 m.a.s.l.); a moderate solid range is stretching along the right bank of Podorovatyi river and to the Yavirnyk stow, separate isolated ones residing on north-eastern versants along the banks of Susharka and Chornyi Cheremosh. Primary forest type is moist spruce and beech fir wood (average timber yield 920.5 m3/ha, mean increment 8.0 m3/ha);
  2. pure grey alder (850-900 m.a.s.l.); a moderate narrow range is spanning lengthwise the banks of Shybenka river close by the stow of Pohorilets and lower reaches of Gropinets river. Primary forest type is green pure grey alder co-oak wood;
  3. beech, fir and spruce (750-1050 m.a.s.l.); the main solid massive range is spreading along Podorovatyi stow to the stows of Yavirnyk and Mriika; another separate one is almost reaching the upstream of Gropinets river, also embracing the south-eastern flanks of m. Gropa and lower reaches of Gropinets river. Primary forest type is moist beech and fir co-spruce wood (average timber yield 860.85 m3/ha, mean increment 7.3 m3/ha);
  4. fir and spruce (850-900 m.a.s.l.); a moderate narrow range is spanning from south-eastern downhills in the upstream of Podorovatyi tributaries, covering considerable part of Mriika stow, and to the south-western versants not far from Pohorilets stow. Primary forest type is moist fir co-spruce wood (average timber yield 430.0 m3/ha, mean increment 3.75 m3/ha);
  5. pure spruce (900-1450 m.a.s.l.); a moderate range is stretching from the northern downhills in the upstream of Podorovatyi tributaries, covering a pittance of Mriika stow, and to the western hills near Pohorilets stow. Another isolated one is spanning over st. Gropinets and on the south-eastern versants of the Gropa mountain. Primary forest type is moist co-spruce wood (average timber yield 345.0 m3/ha, mean increment 3.9 m3/ha);
  6. subalpine belt (1450-1650 m.a.s.l.), covered with grass meadows with elements of Swiss-pine krummholz woods on the summit of Staika mountain.

The up-to-date age composition of forests is the following: young stand - 26.44%, middle-aged - 62.33%, ripening stand - 10.83%, mature and overmature - 0.4%.

The area of this department involves extremely valuable mountain ecosystems of montane terrain in the highest eastern region of Chornohora with importance in various aspects, particularly landscape and ecological, zoogeographical and nature-preservational.

This is the place of concentration of multiple endemic and rare plant species, particularly Carpathian anemone, fairy primrose, pyrenean gentian, Doronicum clusii, Alpine pasqueflower, yellow monkshood, dwarf willow, mountain houseleek, golden root, yellow gentian, Carpathian harebell, Alpine aster, common snowdrop, crocus heufellianus, lesser butterfly-orchid, great masterwort, rock sedge, common spotted orchid, military orchid, Turk’s cap lily.

The fauna of Chornohora department is similarly abundant in endemic species. It is most widely represented by Carpathian newt, fire salamander, wild boar, red deer, roe deer, stoat, European otter, European mink. The bird life is actually rather versatile as well, including common jay, woodpecker, European pigmy owl, peregrine falcon, grouse, black stork.

For the pleasure of vacationers several recreational objects are functioning, such as ‘Ostrivets’ recreational area and the ecological-educational tour Shybene village - Pohorilets stow - Pip Ivan mountain.

Primary objectives of the department are as follows:

  1. preservation of natural complexes;
  2. foundation of new places for recreation;
  3. educational work and promotion of environment-related knowledge;
  4. scientific research and study of natural complexes and their changeability in context of recreational use of the territory.

Vysokohirne nature-oriented science and research department

(land area of 2 049 ha)

Vysokohirne nature-oriented science and research department is headquartered in the southern part of the park on the banks of Pohorilets river (left affluent of Chornyi Cheremosh) on the outskirts of Shybena village (Verkhovyna district).

The highest peaks of the department are the mountains of Pip Ivan (2020 m.a.s.l.) and Shuryn (1772 m.a.s.l.).

This locality is characterised by the moderately-continental climate with considerable annual amount of precipitation (944 mm). Average annual temperature ranges from 5.1 and 7.2 centigrade. Vegetation duration period makes up about 190 days. Prevalent are the winds of south-westerly direction. Permanent snow cover is formed in December and usually fades between April and May.

Waterway network is represented with all length of Pohorilets river together with multiple small tributaries. A special attraction of this region is the high altitude lake of Maricheika situated at the height of 1510 m.a.s.l. with the water-table area exceeding 1 hectare and only 0.8 m deep. The water is fresh and always cold, since the lake takes the afflux from mighty underground springs. The lake is of glacial origin residing on the glacial cirque of the Pleistocene ice age.

Forest is the dominant vegetation type of this area (1558.1 ha), the almost absolute prevalence (95.5%) belonging to evergreen coniferous woods and scrubs. The local forest cover attains the mark of 76,1%. In terms of forestry zoning the vegetation on the territory refers to the Carpathian mountain circuit, the northern part pertinent to the Outer Carpathians with beech and dark coniferous woods, and the southern to the high mountain area of fir and spruce and genuinely spruce woods.

The territory is encompassed by the nature reserve fund, therein divided into four functional areas, among which the greatest amount of forests (83.5%) is embraced by the zone of controlled recreation and the remainder of 16.5% belongs to the conservation area.

The prevailing part of woods (73.0%) are of natural origin.

The dominant forest-forming species are represented with spruce having the dominant position of the local natural abundance with 65.0%. Considerable area is covered with mountain pine (30.0%). Smaller areas go to grey alder and European green alder (2.0%). Minor areas belong to other species, namely silver fir (0.5%) and birch (0.5%).

Vertical zoning of woods is constituted by the following ranges:

  1. pure grey alder (730-780 m.a.s.l.); a narrow solid range is spanning lengthwise the banks of Pohorilets river almost to south-western slopes of Staika mountain. Primary forest type is green pure grey alder co-pine wood;
  2. beech, fir and spruce (790-950 m.a.s.l.); a narrow range is spreading from the southern side of department close by the estuary of Pohorilets river and lengthwise its left bank northernward to south-western flanks of m. Staika. Primary forest type is moist beech and fir co-spruce wood (average timber yield 750.25 m3/ha, mean increment 5.3 m3/ha);
  3. pure spruce (900-1450 m.a.s.l.); a massive wide solid range is stretching from the southern and south-eastern downhills of the Velykyi Pohorilets stow (flanks of the Pip Ivan mountain), thereby embracing the north-eastern slopes of m. Shuryn, and almost reaching the upstream of the Pohorilets river. Primary forest types are as follows: moist co-spruce wood; green co-spruce wood; maiden spruce co-pine wood; moist spruce co-pine wood; green spruce co-pine wood. Co-oak woods are characterized by average timber yield of 345.0 m3/ha and mean increment of 3.9 m3/ha. Co-pine woods correspondingly show indications of 175.0 m3/ha average timber yield and 1.9 m3/ha mean increment.
  4. subalpine belt of Swiss-pine krummholz woods (1450-1650 m.a.s.l.), covered with impenetrable formations of Swiss mountain pine in shape of a massive dense ranges embracing the upstream of Pohorilets river and southern versants of m. Pip Ivan, another one residing on the northern downhill of Shuryn not far from the meadow of Vesnarka;
  5. alpine belt (1650-2020 m.a.s.l.) covered with grass alpine meadows of high-hill top of the Pip Ivan mountain.

The up-to-date age composition of forests is the following: young stand - 8.81%, middle-aged - 85.17%, ripening stand - 2.63%, mature and overmature - 3.39%.

The area of this department involves extremely valuable mountain ecosystems of montane terrain in the highest eastern region of Chornohora with importance in various aspects, particularly landscape and ecological, zoogeographical and nature-preservational.

This is the place of concentration of multiple endemic and rare plant species. Particularly, the department is the habitat for about 400 species of tracheophytes (vascular plants), plenty of which are enlisted in the Red Book of Ukraine, namely wolf’s bane, great masterwort, red helleborine, meadow saffron, crocus heufellianus, moorland spotted orchid, western marsh orchid, violet helleborine, fragrant orchid, Leucojum vernum L., Turk’s cap lily, common twayblade, henbane bell, perennial honesty, stiff clublike, burnt-tip orchid, lesser butterfly-orchid, Traunsteinera globosa, northern firmoss, ramsons. Special attention should be paid to the floral domain of Maricheika lake which is the habitat of such rare species as small cranberry.

The fauna of Chornohora department is similarly abundant in endemic species. It is most widely represented by Carpathian newt, Alpine newt, fire salamander, Mediterranean (Miller’s) shrew, European water vole, stoat, badger, European otter, wild boar, red deer, wildcat, common lynx, brown bear. The bird life is actually rather versatile as well, including golden eagle, grouse, peregrine falcon, rock thrush, golden mountain thrush, boreal owl, woodpecker, European pigmy owl.

Another object of interest on the territory of Vysokohirne department is the remnants of meteorological and astronomical observatory on the summit of Pip Ivan, constructed in 1938.

For the pleasure of vacationers several ecological-educational tours are functioning, namely ‘Pohorilets - Sheshurska - Maricheika lake’, ‘Shybene - Pohorilets - Gropinets - Pip Ivan mountain - Maricheika lake - Pohorilets stow’.

Primary objectives of the department are as follows:

  1. preservation of natural complexes;
  2. foundation of new places for recreation;
  3. educational work and promotion of environment-related knowledge;
  4. scientific research and study of natural complexes and their changeability in context of recreational use of the territory.